Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes. American Cancer Society. June 25, 2014.
C ancer is a word used to describe a wide variety of diseases. However, all of these diseases have one thing in common; cells in the body begin to divide uncontrollably and can spread to surrounding tissue throughout the body. Normally, healthy cells also grow and divide, but only when needed. When the time comes, old cells die, and new cells are created. When cells become cancerous, this process is no longer controlled. Old cells do not die but new cells are forming even if they are not needed.
Eventually, the cells may grow so large that they may form masses in the body called tumors. Malignant tumors are able to spread to surrounding tissue. They can also form new tumors at other locations in the body if a cancerous cell breaks off from the original tumor and travels through the body. Benign tumors do not spread to surrounding tissues or throughout the body. In general, benign tumors do not grow back when removed unlike malignant tumors that grow back more often.
Often times, the reason cancer arises is due to a genetic change to genes. Genes are portions of DNA that control how cells function. These genetic changes can be passed down from parents, or can be due to some internal or external environmental factor, such as tobacco smoke. Mutations are a common genetic change that may occur. Similar cancers in different people as well as different cancers in similar people may all have diverse combinations of genetic changes that cause the cancer to arise.
Based on existing research, Epigenetic Data Sciences (EDS) has been able to identify the genes we believe show abnormal gene expression in breast cancer cells. Our research is based on the collected and analyzed data produced in laboratories and universities around the globe.
EDS' approach is to fight cancer along all of it's critical pathways that are drivers of cancer formation and progression. In contrast, one of the newest drugs for breast cancer, Ibrance, targets just two genes (CDK4 and CDK6)1.
At EDS, we have set our sights on well over a hundred-eighty genes that are either under or over-expressed in cancer cells. Our research aims to provide actionable information that not only targets the bad genes (oncogenes) that are over produced, but good (tumor - suppressors) that are under produced. We believe that this leads to a more comprehensive strategy to attack a disease that has defied a cure for centuries despite modern medicine’s best efforts.